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Appendix B. The Bible, Israel and the Fig
(Chapter 4 refers)

Table 1.  Bible References to the Fig Tree, or Its Leaves

Reference Wording in The Amplified Bible Context - Israel
Verses that specifically associate Israel with the fig are flagged = I      
Old Testament    
Genesis 3:6-7 "they sewed fig leaves together"  
Deuteronomy 8:7-8 "A land of ... vines and fig trees" I
Judges 9:8-15 "Then the trees said to the fig tree"  
I Kings 4:25 "every man under his vine and fig tree" I
II Kings 18:31-32 "every man from his own vine and fig tree" I
Psalms 105:33 "their vines also and their fig trees"  
Proverbs 27:18 "Whoever tends the fig tree"  
Isaiah 34:4 "as a withered fig falls from the fig tree"  
Isaiah 36:16-17 "every one of his own fig tree" I
Jeremiah 5:17 "your vines and your fig trees" I
Jeremiah 8:13 "nor figs on the fig tree" I
Hosea 2:12 "her vines and her fig trees" I
Hosea 9:10 "as the first ripe fruit on the fig tree" I
Joel 1:7 and 12 "My fig tree" I
Joel 2:22 "the fig tree and the vine"  
Amos 4:9 "your fig trees and your olive trees" I
Micah 4:4 "every man under his vine and under his fig tree"  
Nahum 3:12 "fig trees with early figs"  
Habbakuk 3:17 "Though the fig tree does not blossom" I
Haggai 2:19 "the grapevine, the fig tree, the pomegranate" I
Zechariah 3:10 "his own vine and his own fig tree" I
New Testament    
Matthew 21:18-22 "one single leafy fig tree"  
Matthew 24:32-35 "From the fig tree learn its lesson" I
Mark 11:12-14 and 19-24 "a fig tree [covered] with leaves"  
Mark 13:28-31 "Now learn a lesson from the fig tree" I
Luke 13:1-9 "I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree" I
Luke 21:29-33 "Look at the fig tree, and all the trees" I
John 1:47-51 "I saw you beneath the fig tree"  
James 3:8-12 "Can a fig tree, my brethren, bear olives"  
Revelation 6:12-14 "like a fig tree shedding its unripe fruit"  

Table 2.  Bible References to Figs

Reference Wording in The Amplified Bible Context - Israel
Verses that specifically associate Israel with the fig are flagged = I      
Where the King James Version does not mention figs; these refs. are flagged = N-K    
Old Testament    
Numbers 13:23 "they brought also some pomegranates and figs" I
Numbers 20:5 "It is no place of grain, or of figs"  
I Samuel 25:18 "200 cakes of figs"  
I Samuel 30:11-12 "a piece of a cake of figs"  
II Kings 20:7 "Bring a cake of figs"  
I Chronicles 12:40 "abundant supplies of meal, cakes of figs" I
Nehemiah 13:15 "and also wine, grapes, figs"  
Isaiah 28:4 "like the early fig" I
N-K
Isaiah 38:21 "Let them take a cake of figs"  
Jeremiah 24:1-10 "two baskets of figs" I
Jeremiah 29:17 "figs which are so bad they cannot be eaten"  
Ezekiel 27:17 "olives or early figs, honey, oil, and balm" N-K
Micah 7:1 "no first-ripe fig" I
N-K
New Testament    
Matthew 7:15-20 "figs from thistles?"  
Luke 6:43-45 "figs are not gathered from thornbushes"  


^  Appendix C.  Bible Chronology
(Chapter 7 refers)

Detail of its calculation using the generations given in the Bible

The method used was to add up the number of generations from Adam to Jesus of Nazareth. There are 76 of them according to the list in chapter 3 of Luke's Gospel. But the Old Testament record seems to show that two ancestral names were added inadvertently. (Genesis 11:12 - there is no "Cainan" between Arpachshad and Shelah, and I Chronicles 2:10 - there is no "Admin" between Ram and Amminadab.) So if we take the earlier record as being more authentic, the total of the generations from Adam must be reduced from 76 to 74.

Now how do we space these generations out correctly? The Bible helps us here too - giving the number of years between father and son for the first 21 steps in the family tree (1st Son - Seth, 21st - Jacob). These total 2,110 years (100 years per generation!)

We know the span of time for the next four generations, taken as a whole. Details are as follows:

Jacob was 130 when he talked with the pharaoh on arrival in Egypt (Genesis 47:9). And the Hebrews were in Egypt for the next 430 years (Exodus 12:40). So it was 130 years before the move to Egypt, plus 430 years in Egypt, totaling 560 years. And at the time of the Exodus from Egypt, Moses was 80 (Exodus 7:7). Moses was the fourth generation after Jacob: His father was Amram, grandfather Kohath, and greatgrandfather Levi (I Chronicles 6:1-3).

Hence the calculation for the four generations - Levi through Moses - is the total span of 560 years minus Moses' age at the Exodus:

560 - 80 = 480 years. (So this is 120 years per generation for these four generations.)
Adding the above 480 years to the previous total of 2,110 years, gives us 2,590 years for the first 25 Bible generations. (These were the long-lived patriarchs.) After these, a standard figure of 30 years per generation has been allowed - this means that the remaining 49 generations would amount to 1,470 years. Adding this figure to the 2,590 above, we get a total of 4,060 years.

(Note: It should be pointed out that the other New Testament Book that lists generations is Matthew [chapter 1]. If you were to compare the two sets of names given by Luke and Matthew [where possible - since Matthew starts with Abraham; also from David the King the two Gospels follow different paths], you would find there are some quite large differences! The question that arises then is - although we see that two names would seem to have been inserted in error - is it possible that other names were left out, also in error, in arriving at the above Luke 3 total of 76?)


^  Appendix D.  Israel's Year of Re-Birth : The End-Time
(Chapters 8 and 12 refer)

Sign that the Seven Year Tribulation Is a Kingdom Event

(Preamble: In taking as a model here the events in 1948, this is not to imply that all was well in that year. The exact way in which Israel was re-formed as a Jewish state was not so wonderful. We have already pointed out that violence and terror accompanied the taking of the land from the Palestinian Arabs. On reflection, was this so very much better than the armed invasion of the Promised Land under Joshua in Old Testament times? It is true that the War of Independence, begun in 1948, was fought by two protagonists - Jew and Arab. Surely though, the initiative was with those who by force of arms were laying claim to the Land after so long an absence.)

Further evidence is given below to confirm the view that - first the Kingdom begins and then the Seven Year Tribulation takes place. The Sign given is courtesy of the Jewish people - via the timing of Israel's rebirth as a nation. We know already that Israel is the fig tree referred to in the following parable:

"... Behold the fig tree, and all the trees;
as soon as they put forth leaves, you see it and know for yourselves that the summer is now near ..."
Luke 21:29-30 (NAS 1975)
Please recall that Israel proclaimed her independence on May 14, 1948. And May is the month that indeed marks the approach of Summer in a good many lands.

If we think about May 14 in relation to the whole of 1948, do we find there is a parallel here? A parallel between the "fig tree" and "all the trees." A parallel between the year of Israel's renewal as a nation, and the End-Time viewed as a "year." A parallel between the start of Summer for Israel in 1948, and the dawn of "Summer" for all the nations. The question we are asking: In this context, does 1948 represent the End-Time as a whole?

The following twin diagrams depict the idea being put forward here:

Chart D-1. 1948 & Independent Israel : End-Time Duration
1948 - Independent Israel : Duration of End-Time

The suggestion is this: May 14 (the point in time at which the State of Israel declared independence) is a certain percentage of the way through the year 1948. So, in 1948 the Jews of Israel had to wait until May 14 for their breakthrough event. Maybe 1948 is the same percentage of the way - from the start of the End-Time to - the year when the whole world should be ready to proclaim her freedom? If the end of 1948 corresponds symbolically with this signal year in the future, then this is a valid calculation to make:

Before doing the sum (years ago), the writer assumed the answer would be the year 2000. He also assumed that the year 2000 would mark the close of the End-Time. Imagine his surprise when he found that neither assumption was true:

1948 was a leap year, and so had 366 days. May 14 was the 135th day of that year.
Israel declared independence at 4pm (16:00 hours) on that day(D-1). Therefore
nationhood came when 1948 was 134 + (16/24) days = 134.67 days old.

What percentage of 1948 was this?

(134.67 days/366 days) X 100% = 36.8% of 1948 at 4pm on May 14.

If 1948 is the same 36.8% of the way from the start of the End-Time
to that year in the future we are waiting for,
then we can easily calculate the length of the period as a whole:

First recalling that the End-Time (E.T.) began with WWI,
which broke out on August 1, 1914, the length of the period is:

(E.T. Start to Declaration of Independence) X (100/above % of 1948)

= (August 1, 1914 to May 14, 1948) X (100/36.8)

= 33.79 years(D-2) X 2.72

= 91.91 years for the total duration - from the start of the End-Time to its calculated end.
And what is the (calculated) date we get for the end of the period?
August, 1914 is (1 - 0.419) = 0.581 (or 0.58 approx.) through the year 1914.
And 1914.58 + 91.91 years = 2006.49

That is, 2006 plus 0.49 years, or 179 days, which brings us to June 29, 2006.

To summarize the situation: 91.91 years on from August 1, 1914 brought us to June 2006. Now, there is a Jewish belief that the Messiah will come at Rosh Hashanah (the "head of the year"), which occurs around the beginning of Fall. Whereas there is no special expectation that Messiah will appear in the month of June. And as we know, Messiah did not return in June 2006, nor did He come during the 2006 Rosh Hashanah. However, as of 2016, we are only ten years on from 2006. Meaning there is the best part of two decades to go before we reach the signal date of 2033 (which year is two millennia on from the Crucifixion date). We don't know the year when He will come back; but we do know that whichever year it is, His Return marks several things. Among them: 1) The end of the End-Time (chapter 8 covers), for which we will be very glad, 2) the beginning of the Seven Year (purposeful) Tribulation, which we very much need, and most wonderful of all: 3) the start of His Glorious Reign on Earth.

A final point then: the above parallel between Israel's rebirth and the Birth of the Kingdom is very encouraging. It indicates that there will be a year in which we realize that we are all heirs to the greater freedom promised in the Kingdom of God (hopefully not many years from this present year of 2016). We can rejoice in this Prospect.


Appendix D Notes

^  1. The Palestine Post - Jerusalem: 16 May, 1948.
^  2. This figure is arrived at as follows:

From August 1, 1914 to the end of 1914 = 153 whole days.
So there were 153 days/365 days = 0.419 of 1914 remaining on August 1.
Therefore, End-Time years elapsing before Israel's re-birth:

No. of Years
      0.419  (1914 - the part-year)
+  33.000  (1915-1947 - whole years)
   0.368  (1948 - the part-year)
=  33.787
or, 33.79  (to 2 places of decimals).


^  Appendix E.  Astronomy and the Date of the Crucifixion
(Chapter 10 refers)

The Calculation Pointing to April 3, 33 CE

This is a summary of a paper by Colin J. Humphreys and W.G. Waddington entitled Dating the Crucifixion(E-1). In their paper, the authors explain how the Moon takes on a blood-red look during a lunar eclipse. Sunlight at such times can only reach the Moon by refraction in the Earth's atmosphere. The light is reddened as it takes a long path through our atmosphere.

[Note: Similar to the sunset effect.]

By a brilliant piece of deduction, the two scientists concluded that the apostle Peter must have been referring to a lunar eclipse when he preached on the Day of Pentecost:

God says ... I will show wonders in the heavens above ...
The Sun will be turned to darkness and the Moon to blood
before that great and glorious day of the Lord shall come.
Acts 2:17-20
Peter was saying that the "great and glorious day" was when Jesus rose again; and that this Prophecy from Joel had been fulfilled just two days prior.

That the Sun was darkened at the Crucifixion we know from the Gospels (Matthew 27:45, for example). In addition though, there exists a fragment of an apocryphal work - the Report of Pilate - which goes further:

... the Sun was darkened; the stars appeared and in all the world people lighted lamps from the sixth hour till evening; the Moon appeared like blood ...
Humphreys and Waddington calculated all possible lunar eclipses applying to Jerusalem, in the 11 years 26-36 CE. (This period being Pilate's term of office in Judea.) They show that 12 eclipses would have occurred in those years. Of the 12, only one falls on a suitable day - by the criteria they set down.

These criteria are - the Crucifixion was on a Friday - all four Gospels agree on this point. It was during the Passover - either the Day of Preparation (14 Nisan) or the next day (15 Nisan). The Jewish month of Nisan corresponds with March/April.

The two astronomers show all possible dates for which 14/15 Nisan falls on a Friday in the years 26-36 CE. There are four of them:

Friday April 11, 27 CE, and Friday April 7, 30 CE,
Friday April 3, 33 CE, and Friday April 23, 34 CE.
These dates are reckoned according to the Julian calendar then in use.
(Note: They differ by less than a day from the date which our Gregorian calendar would have given.)

Photo E-1. Moon in Eclipse
Image cropped and used courtesy of:
Wikimedia Commons

Blood-red Moon

Of the above 12 lunar eclipses, the only one that was found to have taken place on a Friday in April (between 26 and 36 CE), was on Friday, April 3, 33 CE. This was a 60% eclipse, and it coincided with moonrise.

Jews waiting to start the Passover meal would have been shaken to see the Moon appear as if dipped in blood.

(Note: It is gratifying to find that the above discovery also confirms Catholic tradition. This tradition affirms that our Lord was crucified in the year 33 CE. With the insight given by astronomy, we can now see that the exact date given by the Great Pyramid timeline [chapter 5] is confirmed as the Crucifixion Date. Praise God for astronomy!)


Appendix E Notes

^  1. Colin J. Humphreys and W.G. Waddington, Dating the Crucifixion
in Nature Vol. 306, 22/29 December, 1983
(London: Macmillan Magazines Ltd.) pgs. 743-746.

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